PHP

1.1 Introduction

PHP is server-side technology, which means it doesn't run on the client, which is what a Web browser is.
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1.2 Data Type

PHP is loosely typed, which means it calculates data types as data is assigned to each variable.
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1.3 Constant

Constants have global scope, so they are accessible.
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1.4 Output

The simplest use of echo is to print a string as argument.
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1.5 Variables

Variable is Special type of container which can hold the value .
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1.6 Looping

Number of times-when you can tell by looking at the code how many times the loop will iterate.
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1.6.1 While
The while loop checks the condition expression as a Boolean—if it is true, it executes statement and then starts again by evaluating condition.
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1.6.2 Do-while
The statement is executed once, and then the expression is evaluated. If the expression is true, the statement is repeated until the expression becomes false.
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1.6.3 For
For statement, first the initial-expression is evaluated for once, to initialize variables then termination-check is evaluated,if it is false, the for statement ends, and if it is true, the statement executes.
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1.6.4 For each Loop
The foreach loop is used to loop through arrays.
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1.6.5 Break and Continue
Break is used in terminating the loop immediately after it is encountered.The break statement is used with conditional if statement.
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1.8 Branching

Two main structures for branching are if and switch.
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1.8.1 If-Else
When an if statement is processed, the condition expression is evaluated, and the result is interpreted as a Boolean value.
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1.8.2 Switch
Switch is a useful alternative for certain situations where you want multiple possible branches based on a single value and where a series of if statements would be cumbersome.
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1.9 Function

A function is a way of wrapping up a some part of code(Chunk) and giving that small name(Chunk), so that you can use chunk that later in just one line of code.
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1.10 Array

Arrays store element values in association with key values rather than index order.
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1.10.1 Creating an Arrays
Three main ways to create an array in a PHP script that happens to return an array as its value :
- By assigning a value into one.
- By using the array() construct.
- By calling a function.
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1.10.2 Some Sort Functions For Arrays
sort() :This Function sort arrays in ascending order.
rsort() : This Function sort arrays in descending order.
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1.11 String

Strings are sequences of characters. It can be treated as a string assigned to variables, given as input to functions, returned from functions, or sent as output to your user's Web page.
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1.11.1 String Concatenation Operator
When operator placed between two string arguments,produces a new string that is the result of putting the two strings together in sequence.
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1.11.2 String Functions
There are different types of String Functions :-
strlen() : use to find out length of string or string length.
strlen() : use to replace all instances of a particular substring with an alternate string.
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1.12 Forms

PHP is very efficient at passing data because the developers made a it very easy when they choose suitable design decision.
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1.11.1 GET Method
The GET method is use to pass arguments from one page to another of next page as part of the Uniform Resource Indicator(URI).
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1.11.2 POST Method
The POST method is used for form submission today, particularly in non idempotent usages, such as adding information to a database.
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1.13 OOP's

PHP is not an object-oriented language because OOP wasn't added until PHP 3. When PHP 5 was released in July 2004,the path of classes and objects work in PHP was changed originally.
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1.13.1 Class
A class is simply a representation of a type of object.It is the blueprint/ plan/ template that describe the details of an object.
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1.13.2 Object
An Object is a real world entity. An object can be considered a "thing" that can perform a set of related activities.
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1.13.3 Access Modifier
In Private access modifier,properties and methods can be accessed only within the class.
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1.13.4 Encapsulation
Encapsulation is to ascertain that each part of an application is seperate and doesn't interfere with any others. When defining a property in a class, you must specify whether it's public, private, or protected.
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1.13.5 Constructor and Destructor
PHP 5 provides two ways where you can write a constructor method inside a class. First way is to create a method with the name __construct() inside the class.
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1.13.6 Inheritance
Inheritance is feature in OOP where you can extend a class and create a completely new object. The new object keep all the functionality of the parent object from which it is extended or can override.
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1.13.7 Polymorphism
Polymorphism is the process of creating several objects from specific base classes.
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1.13.8 Abstract Class
An abstract class is same as interface,except that now the methods can contain body. An abstract class must also be "extended".
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1.13.9 Interface
Interface contains only the declaration of methods. If any class which implement this interface must contain the declared functions in it.
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1.13.10 Static Keyword
A static keyword is very important concept in OOP. Static method and properties play important role in Development.
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1.13.11 Final Keyword
If you declare method as final in super class it can't be overridden in any of its subclass.
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1.14 Exception Handling

PHP 5 introduces an exceptions objects to simplify your error . An Exception is any unusual condition that causes an alteration in program flow, such as a missing file or a null pointer.
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1.15 Date()

The PHP date() function is use to display the format a time and/or date.
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1.16 include

If you want to add one PHP file to another PHP file through include and require .
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1.17 File

fopen() : This function is used to open the files in PHP.
fclose() :This function is used to close an open file.

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1.18 File Upload

PHP provides simple way to upload files to server.
enctype="multipart/form-data" creates both a binary and an ascii upload.
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1.19 Cookies

Cookies are small text files that are used by a Web server to keep track of users.
A cookie has value in the form of name-value pairs.
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1.20 Session

Sessions variable are used to identify a user which store on your server.
A new session is created if one does not already exist.
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1.21 Filter

Filter use when the data source contains user input data or unknown data.
Validation is used to validate or restrict some user input.
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1.22MySql

MySQL is the most popular Open Source SQL database management system.
MySQL is developed and supported by Oracle Corporation.
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1.22.1 MySQl Connect with PHP
mysql_connect and mysqli_connect() function are use to open a new connection to the MySQL server in PHP.
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1.22.2 Create Database
CREATE DATABASE statement use to create a database table in MySQL.
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1.22.3 Create Table
CREATE TABLE statement use to create a table in MySQL.
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1.22.4 Insert In TO
INSERT INTO statement use to add new records to a database table.
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1.22.5 SELECT
SELECT statement use to select data from a database.
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1.22.6 WHERE
WHERE clause use to extract only those records that fulfill a specified criteria.
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1.22.7 ORDER BY
ORDER BY keyword use to sort the data in a recordset.
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1.22.8 UPDATE
UPDATE statement use to update existing records in a table.
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1.22.9 DELETE
DELETE FROM statement use to delete records from a database table.
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1.23 Registration Page

In this example,we create one simple Registration Page in html and connect code with MySQL database and php script.
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1.24 Login Page

PHP is very efficient at passing data because the developers made a it very easy when they choose suitable design decision.
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1.25 PHP CAPTCHA

PHP Captcha use to protect from Web Forms.
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1.26 Password Encryption

md5() function use to calculate the md5 hash of a given file. The hash is a 32-character hexadecimal number.
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1.27 Examples

Here are some applications example of PHP.
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