Exception Handling in Struts

  • The Struts 2 framework provides the functionality of exception handling through the Interceptor.
  • Instead of displaying stack trace for the exception to the user, it is always good to show a nicely designed page describing the real problem to the user.
Entry in Login.jsp file

Entry in LoginAction class file

Entry in Struts.xml file

Entry in Exception.jsp file

  • This framework provides the flexibility to create own interceptor classes to enable additional logic which can be separated and refused in the Interceptor stack of different action classes.
  • The Custom interceptor class need to be defined in the struts.xml file.
Entry in MyInterceptor class file

Entry in Struts.xml file

Validation Framework

  • Struts 2 based on a validation framework, which is provided by Xwork.
  • The Validation framework uses external metadata in the form of XML files to describe what validation should be performed on your action.
  • Struts2 Validation Framework allows us to separate the validation logic from actual Java/JSP code, where it can be reviewed and easily modified later.
  • Validation can be perform
    1. Programmatic
    2. XML Meta Data
1. Validation Using XML Meta-Data
Entry in AddEmployee.jsp file

Entry in AddEmployeeAction class file

Entry in AddEmployeeActionValidation.xml class file

Note : validation.xml file placed in the same location , where Action is placed and it is same name as action name and end with validation.xml file
2. Validation Using Programmatic
  • It is written in the Actionclass by overriding the validate method , this method calls automatically when user submit the page, it is call before the execute method , and if any error occurred , it return the input as a result , otherwise it execute the execute method of the action
  • Entry in LoginAction.jsp file

  • Internationalization is a technique for application development that support multiple languages and data formats without having to rewrite programming logic.


  • Make different Language property files

    DE Language property files

    FR Language property files

    Entry in Struts property files

    Entry in Login.jsp files

    Steps to configure Language

    Control Tags<s:if><s:iterator>
    Entry in LoginAction class file

    Entry in Welcome.jsp files

Note : Also Specify the application resource name and path in struts.properties file, the path is required if you are not placed in application resoource file in the src folder